# IHS ESDU Datasheets for Standards and Technical Documents

Standards and technical documents includes standards, codes, regulation, handbooks, manuals, comprehensive guides and other formal publications. Standards, codes, and regulation establish uniform specifications, procedures or technical criteria.

Standards and Technical Documents: Learn more

Product Name | Notes |
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Computer-based estimation procedure for single-stream jet noise. Including far-field, static jet mixing noise database for circular nozzles. -- 98019 | A computerized method for estimating exhaust noise spectra from a database is provided. The variables considered in the interpolation/extrapolation routine make the procedure particularly applicable to estimating noise from a... |

Computer-based estimation procedure for near-field single-stream jet noise. -- 99006 | A computerized method for estimating near-field exhaust noise spectra from a database is provided. The variables considered in the interpolation/extrapolation routine make the procedure particularly applicable to estimating noise from... |

Buckling stress ratios for flat plates under shear and non-uniform compression. -- 70002 | A design curve is presented that gives non-dimensionalised shear and compressive stress ratios. The curve applies to flat plates having four types of edge restraint namely (i) ends and sides... |

CFD validation studies for transitional flow in circular straight pipes with smooth walls -- TN 08009 | Accurate prediction of transitional flow in straight pipes is one of the most challenging CFD applications. While it is not advisable to design fluid equipment to operate in transitional flow... |

Comprehensive method for modelling performance of aircraft type tyres rolling or braking on runways contaminated with water, slush, snow, ice. -- 05011 | An empirical model is defined that describes the decelerating forces acting on aircraft type tyres when rolling or braking on hard surfaces typical of runways and taxiways. The model is... |

Compendium of modal densities Part II: Shell structures -- 11009 | Bolotin's method is described for the estimation of modal densities of curved isotropic, panels with cylindrical, spherical or doubly-curved profiles. The modal densities of isotropic cylinders and spheres are also... |

Analysis of pretensioned bolted joints subject to tensile (separating) forces. -- 85021 | By using an idealised joint model, the concept of a load/deflection diagram is developed to show the influence of pretensioning through to joint separation. That analysis is then built on... |

Conversion factors for fluid flows. -- CF2 | Conversion factors between various unit systems for liquid flow parameters. |

Conversion factors. -- CFA | Conversion factors, units. Includes some useful data for air and water. Also sea level data for the International Standard Atmosphere. |

Aerofoils having a specified form of upper-surface pressure distribution: details and comments on design. -- 71020 | Details are given of a series of aerofoils that have been used for parametric studies of drag-rise Mach number, of profile drag at the drag-rise Mach number and for a... |

Computer program for prediction of aircraft lateral stability derivatives in sideslip at subsonic speeds. -- 00025 | ESDU 00025 describes the construction of input files for the FORTRAN program ESDUpac A0025, which combines and extends the prediction methods of twenty five individual ESDU documents to evaluate the... |

Aerofoil profile drag for Mach numbers below the drag rise condition. -- 00027 | ESDU 00027 provides simple equations and graphs for predicting the minimum profile drag coefficient for an aerofoil with fixed transition position on both the upper and lower surfaces. The method... |

Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of leading-edge high-lift devices. -- 00029 | ESDU 00029 predicts for aerofoils the centre of lift position based on thin-aerofoil theory with empirical correction. This is combined with thepredicted increment in aerofoil lift coefficient from ESDU 94027... |

Condensation of pure fluids in downflow on horizontal integral low-fin tube bundles. -- 01009 | ESDU 01009 provides a method for predicting the local condensate film coefficient for the downflow of a pure vapour or azeotropic mixture over horizontal integral low-fin tubes and tube bundles,... |

Compendium of curves and approximating algebraic functions. -- 01011 | ESDU 01011 presents families of curve shapes and algebraic functions as an aid to the effective representation of experimental, numerical and graphical data by the selection of suitable such functions. |

Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of leading-edge and trailing-edge high-lift devices in combination at low speeds. -- 01013 | ESDU 01013 predicts for aerofoils the centre of lift position based on thin-aerofoil theory with empirical correction. This is combined with the predicted increment in aerofoil lift coefficient from other... |

AMOPS: computer program for the calculation of area and moments of area of planar shapes. -- 02007 | ESDU 02007 provides a User Manual for an interactive Windows program, Amops, for calculating the area and moments of area of planar shapes. The program determines the total area of... |

Aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part I: Time-averaged flow. -- 02008 | ESDU 02008 introduces and illustrates the time-averaged flow patterns forrectangular planform cavities mounted in a flat plate with a uniform external flow and a turbulent boundary layer, with some reference... |

An introduction to aircraft noise. -- 02020 | ESDU 02020 is an overview of the various sources of noise from aeroplanes and helicopters and includes consideration of the propagation of that noise outside and inside the vehicle together... |

AMOPS: Computer program for the calculation of area and moments of area of planar shapes. -- 03005 | ESDU 03005 provides a User Manual for an interactive Windows program, Amops, for calculating the section constants of planar shapes. The program determines the total area of the shape, the... |

An introduction to lateral static aeroelasticity: controllability, loads and stability. -- 03011 | ESDU 03011 introduces lateral static aeroelasticity in which the effects of structural deformation on lateral stability, controllability and loading in steady lateral manoeuvres are considered. The effect of deformations are... |

Computer program for calculation of mean value properties for non-uniform compressible flows. -- 03012 | ESDU 03012 provides background to and guidance on the use of a computer program for calculation of mean-value properties for ducted flows. Use of mean values is necessary when variation... |

An introduction to low-cycle fatigue phenomena -- 04022 | ESDU 04022 introduces the basic equations of low-cycle fatigue analysis, and some of the limitations of their usage. Both the strain-life relationship (otherwise known as the Coffin-Manson equation) and the... |

An introduction to rigid aeroplane response to gusts and atmospheric turbulence. -- 04024 | ESDU 04024 presents an introduction to rigid aeroplane response to gusts and atmospheric turbulence, together with the design criteria required to satisfy airworthiness requirements for both types of disturbance. The... |

Aerofoil skin friction drag for Mach numbers below the drag-rise condition. -- 06001 | ESDU 06001 provides simple equations and graphs for predicting the skin friction drag coefficient for symmetrical and cambered aerofoil sections with smooth surfaces and attached flow, in the presence of... |

Computer program for estimation of aerofoil characteristics at subcritical speeds: lift-curve slope, zero-lift incidence and pitching moment, aerodynamic centre and drag polar minimum. -- 06020 | ESDU 06020 describes ESDUpac A0620 which determines aerofoil lift-curve slope, zero-lift incidence and pitching moment, aerodynamic centre and drag polar minimum, at subcritical speeds by using the methods of ESDU... |

Crack growth criteria for the estimation of fatigue life. -- 07012 | ESDU 07012 is concerned with the damage-tolerance approach to the design against fatigue and the application of crack propagation models to the estimation of fatigue life of structures. The concept... |

Aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part IIIB: Alleviation of unsteady flow effects - acoustic suppression using passive devices. -- 08012 | ESDU 08012 provides information on the use of passive devices for acoustic suppression in rectangular planform cavities. The very wide range of passive devices employed in both wind-tunnel and flight... |

Aerodynamics of Parachutes -- 09012 | ESDU 09012 is intended to provide an introduction to the aerodynamics of parachutes for aeronautical engineers or students with little or no previous knowledge of parachute aerodynamics or design. The... |

Comparison of extrapolated low-Reynolds-number lift measurements on the F4 wing/body with high-Reynolds-number measurements -- 11006 | ESDU 11006 illustrates the procedures, detailed in ESDU 07010, which are used to extrapolate low-Reynolds number wind-tunnel data to high Reynolds numbers. Lift measurements on the F4 wing/body combination are... |

Bandwidth correction. -- 66016 | ESDU 66016 gives the relationship between the spectrum level at a particular frequency and the level in a band of known width centred on that frequency. Bandwidth corrections are plotted... |

Combination of levels in dB. -- 66017 | ESDU 66017 provides a method of determining the combined sound level resulting from two or more sources of known levels. The method may be used to obtain the overall level... |

Approximate data on the viscosity of some common liquids. -- 66024 | ESDU 66024 gives the variation of viscosity with temperature, at atmospheric or saturation pressure, for 113 commonly used liquids. These include inorganic and organic chemicals, refrigerants, liquid metals, oils and... |

Conversion formulae for rotation and translation of body axes. -- 67004 | ESDU 67004 relates the vector components, stability derivatives, and inertia parameters in one set of axes to those in another. The axis systems in normal use in flight dynamics are... |

Atmospheric data for performance calculations. -- 68046 | ESDU 68046 provides tables of the properties of the International Standard Atmosphere for use in aircraft performance calculations in commonly used units. They contain the parameters most frequently used in... |

Convective heat transfer during forced crossflow of fluids over a circular cylinder including free convection effects. -- 69004 | ESDU 69004 presents convective heat transfer data in non-dimensional form for crossflow over a circular cylinder. The cases of horizontal and vertical cylinders are covered and the data apply for... |

A method for estimating the pressure distribution on the surface of a two-dimensional aerofoil in a sonic stream. -- 69013 | ESDU 69013 presents a method for calculating the pressure distribution on an aerofoil in a sonic stream. The method, the derivation of which is given, is based on theoretical and... |

Airspeed data for performance calculations. -- 69026 | ESDU 69026 presents means of obtaining airspeed and kinetic pressure information which are needed for performance estimation or reduction purposes. These data apply to pressure heights from -2000 to l05... |

A guide to the viscosity of liquid petroleum products. -- 71003 | ESDU 71003 gives information on the approximate viscosity ranges covered by petroleum products including lubricants, fuels and liquefied gases and bitumens. British Standards designations for fuels and lubricants are included... |

Buckling of flat plates in shear. -- 71005 | ESDU 71005 provides the elastic buckling coefficient for flat rectangular isotropic plates loaded in shear and having various combinations of clamped and simply-supported edge conditions. Plasticity correction factors are provided. |

Approximate wave drag of rectangular planform fairings at zero incidence in supersonic flow. -- 71018 | ESDU 71018 provides a simple method of estimating the wave drag due to rectangular planform fairings at zero incidence in supersonic flow. The data, which were derived using linearised supersonic... |

Atmospheric data for performance calculations. Addendum: height in feet, data in SI units. -- 72018 | ESDU 72018 provides tables of the properties of the International Standard Atmosphere for use in aircraft performance calculations with values of height in feet and the other parameters in SI... |

Buckling of flat isotropic plates under uniaxial and biaxial loading. -- 72019 | ESDU 72019 gives the elastic buckling stress under longitudinal compression of a plate with edge conditions: (1) short sides simply-supported and long sides simply-supported, clamped or elastically restrained laterally and/or... |

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils in compressible inviscid airflow at subcritical Mach numbers. -- 72024 | ESDU 72024 provides a means of estimating the lift-curve slope at zero lift, zero-lift incidence, zero-lift pitching moment coefficient and chordwise location of the aerodynamic centre for any aerofoil in... |

Adaptation of drag-rise charts in T.D. Memor. 71019 to the mid-semi-span portion of swept and tapered planforms. -- 72027 | ESDU 72027 takes charts from ESDU 71019 for the prediction of the Mach number at which shock-wave drag first appears on families of aerofoils having a particular form of upper-surface... |

Criteria of yielding for ductile materials under static loading. -- 73004 | ESDU 73004 gives the two criteria most frequently used to predict yielding from a knowledge of uniaxial tensile tests. They are the Tresca and the Von Mises-Hencky criteria, and formulae... |

Approximate methods for estimation of cruise range and endurance: aeroplanes with turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines. -- 73019 | ESDU 73019 gives methods for use in still air (ESDU 73018 gives the effect of wind) in cases when at least one parameter out of airspeed, Mach number, pressure height... |

Convective heat transfer during crossflow of fluids over plain tube banks. -- 73031 | ESDU 73031 gives a method for estimating the heat transfer from a bank of plain tubes in fluid crossflow (as, for example, in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger). The data apply... |

Conversion of lift coefficient increment due to flaps from full span to part span. -- 74012 | ESDU 74012 gives curves derived from lifting-surface calculations for correcting lift increment due to deflection of a full-span flap to give the increment for a part-span flap with arbitrary spanwise... |

A method for estimating drag-rise Mach number at zero incidence of smooth or bumpy non-ducted axisymmetric bodies without or with fins. -- 74013 | ESDU 74013 gives a method of predicting when the shock first appears downstream of the point of maximum cross section, either on first being formed or on moving from an... |

Buckling of corrugated shear webs. -- 74022 | ESDU 74022 gives a curve for the shear at overall buckling of the web as a function of the edge rotational restraint, the product of the stiffnesses along and across... |

Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part I: definitions and general information. -- 74030 | ESDU 74030 introduces the background to the statistics used for presenting the turbulence data in the Series, explaining the physical significance of the terms used. Only concepts relating to turbulence... |

Aerodynamic centre of wing-fuselage combinations. -- 76015 | ESDU 76015 gives an empirical method for correcting the wing-alone aerodynamic centre position from ESDU 70011. Graphs give correction factors for fuselage forebody and afterbody length, and width, and fuselage... |

Buckling of struts. Lipped and unlipped channel sections. -- 76023 | ESDU 76023 gives charts that relate the compressive stress at buckling to the associated half-wavelength of the buckle; they cover the practical range of flange and lip proportions for unlipped... |

Aerodynamic centre of wing-fuselage-nacelle combinations: effect of wing-pylon mounted nacelles. -- 77012 | ESDU 77012 gives a method for estimating the forward shift of aerodynamic centre by treating the nacelle as an annular wing of diameter equal to the nacelle spanwise width. A... |

Buckling of struts. Lipped and unlipped Z sections. -- 77030 | ESDU 77030 gives curves relating the compressive stress at buckling to the associated half-wavelength for struts of isotropic material and uniform thickness. The effects of translation, rotation, and distortion of... |

A framework relating the drag-rise characteristics of a finite wing/body combination to the those of its basic aerofoil. -- 78009 | ESDU 78009 derives, from simple sweep laws and the concept of the equivalence of two- and three-dimensional flows, a framework in the form of equations relating lift, freestream Mach number,... |

Aerodynamic centre of wing-fuselage-nacelle combinations: effect of rear-fuselage pylon-mounted nacelles. -- 78013 | ESDU 78013 gives a method for estimating the rearward shift of aerodynamic centre by treating the nacelle as an annular wing of diameter equal to the nacelle spanwise width. A... |

Contact phenomena. I: stresses, deflections and contact dimensions for normally-loaded unlubricated elastic components. -- 78035 | ESDU 78035 is a comprehensive review covering all possible conformal or non-conformal contact shapes; circular, rectangular and elliptical. Curves are given that enable in each case the contact dimensions to... |

Characteristics of disc springs in combination (to be used in conjunction with Item No.78043). -- 79010 | ESDU 79010 explains the application of ESDU 78043 to the calculation of the load/deflection behaviour of stacks of initially coned disc springs (Belleville washers). Four types of stack, to give... |

A guide to fan selection and performance. -- 79037 | ESDU 79037 gives information to assist the specialist and non-specialist in fan selection and tender appraisal. For the non-specialist, the special terminology appropriate to fans is introduced, the types of... |

Axial pressure coefficient distributions for forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 at zero incidence in transonic flow. -- 80008 | ESDU 80008 presents charts of the distribution of forebody pressure coefficient for spherically blunted tangent ogive, spherically blunted paraboloid and modified ellipsoid forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0... |

Average downwash at the tailplane at low angles of attack and subsonic speeds. -- 80020 | ESDU 80020 contains a simple method for estimating the average downwash angle at the tailplane for subsonic speeds and low angles of attack where the lift, pitching moment and downwash... |

Buckling of rectangular specially orthotropic plates. -- 80023 | ESDU 80023 defines the specially-orthotropic plate. Buckling loads are presented in terms of the plate geometry and the four flexural stiffnesses for a variety of edge conditions for plates loaded... |

Blockage corrections for bluff bodies in confined flows. -- 80024 | ESDU 80024 provides information about the effects of blockage on the forces and pressures on, and flow around, bluff and quasi-streamlined bodies in two- and three-dimensional flows confined by straight,... |

Contribution of wing planform to rolling moment derivative due to sideslip, (L sub v) sub w, at subsonic speeds. -- 80033 | ESDU 80033 gives graphical data for estimating the wing planform contribution to Lv for aircraft having wings of any trapezoidal planform with aspect ratio between 1 and 12, tip chord/root... |

Buckling of outstanding flanges. Direct stresses varying linearly or parabolically. -- 80035 | ESDU 80035 provides data on the buckling of outstanding flanges subjected to stresses which vary linearly or parabolically across their width. The buckling stresses are given for long thin rectangular... |

A guide to the thermal and mechanical characteristics of refractory lining materials. -- 80041 | ESDU 80041 provides background information and guidance on factors important in the selection, arrangement and mechanical support of refractory lining systems. The information given assists with specification writing and tender... |

Contribution of wing planform to derivatives of yawing moment and sideforce due to roll rate at subsonic speeds (N sub p) sub w and (Y sub p) sub w. -- 81014 | ESDU 81014 presents a method that applies to wings without dihedral, camber or twist, in the "clean condition", i.e. with any high lift devices retracted. The method was originally developed... |

A method of estimating a separation boundary for two-dimensional aerofoil sections in transonic flow. -- 81020 | ESDU 81020 gives a method for predicting the lift coefficient versus Mach number curve defining separation from a series of pressure distribution calculations using computer codes that strictly do not... |

Atlas of performance curves for crank-rocker and slider-crank linkages. -- 81033 | ESDU 81033 presents an "atlas" of graph sheets that directly provide nine important performance parameters related to the motion of the crank including: a) angle between the coupler link and... |

An introduction to aircraft noise lateral attenuation. -- 81035 | ESDU 81035 gives guidance on the estimation of lateral attenuation of aircraft noise from noise measurements. Lateral attenuation is defined as the difference between the under-the-flightpath and sideline free-field levels... |

Acceleration factors for climb and descent rates at constant EAS, CAS, M. -- 81046 | ESDU 81046 gives algebraic, numerical and graphical forms of "acceleration factors" which provide a simple, direct method of taking into account the acceleration of an aircraft along the flight path... |

Buckling of flat rectangular plates (isotropic, orthotropic and laminated composite plates and sandwich panels). -- 81047 | ESDU 81047 introduces a Fortran program (ESDUpac A8147) for calculating the buckling loads of flat rectangular orthotropic plates under combinations of uniform in-plane biaxial direct and shear loads. The program... |

An introduction and guide to noise in ventilation, air-conditioning and other ducting systems. -- 82001 | ESDU 82001 provides an introduction to terminology used for acoustic quantities and their relationships and further provides general guidance on the principles of noise control in ventilation and air-conditioning systems,... |

Compressible flow of gases. Pressure losses and discharge coefficients of orifice plates, perforated plates and thick orifice plates in ducts. -- 82009 | ESDU 82009 provides pressure loss and discharge coefficient data for subsonic compressible flow of gases through single, or multiple, sharp-edged orifices in thin or thick plates for flow rates up... |

Contribution of fin to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to sideslip, (Y sub v) sub F, (N sub v) sub F, (L sub v) sub F, in the presence of body, wing and tailplane. -- 82010 | ESDU 82010 provides a method for estimating the contribution of a fin to the sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to sideslip for aircraft at subsonic speeds. The... |

Contribution of fin to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of yaw, (Y sub r) sub F, (N sub r) sub F, (L sub r) sub F. -- 82017 | ESDU 82017 provides a method for estimating the contribution of a fin to the sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of yaw for aircraft at subsonic... |

A guide to the selection of cam and follower type. -- 82024 | ESDU 82024 provides a method to suit any application with a rotating motion requiring either a translating or swinging output motion. The cam types are classified according to the output... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded fixed-inclined-pad thrust bearings. -- 82029 | ESDU 82029 provides charts and calculation methods for the design of fixed-inclined-pad thrust bearings. It may also be used to analyse the performance of existing bearing designs in failure analysis... |

Aircraft forces due to interference between a jet efflux and a slotted flap. -- 82034 | ESDU 82034 provides a simple method of predicting, at the project stage of the design of an aircraft, the lift, drag and pitching moment increments arising from a lift augmentation... |

Approximate parametric method for propeller thrust estimation. -- 83001 | ESDU 83001 provides an approximate method for determining the uninstalled static thrust and the thrust lapse characteristics for a wide variety of constant-speed propellers. The method provides estimates of thrust... |

Allowable stresses for helical compression and tension springs of round wire. -- 83002 | ESDU 83002 provides a graphical presentation of the allowable stresses in both compression and tension springs for static or fatigue loading of common spring materials. Data are given for 6... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded, off-set pivot, tilting-pad thrust bearings. -- 83004 | ESDU 83004 provides charts and calculation methods for the design of off-set pivot, tilting-pad thrust bearings. It may also be used to analyse the performance of existing bearing designs in... |

Contribution of fin to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of roll, (Y sub p) sub F, (N sub p) sub F, (L sub p) sub F, in the presence of body, wing and tailplane. -- 83006 | ESDU 83006 provides a method for calculating the contributions of the vertical stabilising fin of an aircraft to the sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of... |

Axial pressure coefficient distributions for spherically blunted secant ogive forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 at zero incidence in transonic flow. -- 83018 | ESDU 83018 gives graphs showing the axial variation of the pressure coefficient along the length of the forebodies for which wave drag data are given in ESDU 83017. The Mach... |

Approximation to the roots of the lateral equations of motion of an aircraft with and without a simple yaw damper. -- 83024 | ESDU 83024 examines the relationship between the coefficients of the stability quartic of the lateral equations of motion and the coefficients of the equivalent quadratic factors. Relationships are developed that,... |

Contribution of body to yawing moment and sideforce derivatives due to rate of yaw, (N sub r) sub B and (Y sub r) sub B. -- 83026 | ESDU 83026 gives a method for predicting the body contribution to the yawing moment derivative due to rate of yaw for use in the calculation of aircraft lateral stability. A... |

Approximate parametric method for propeller thrust estimation. Addendum A: application to fixed-pitch propellers. -- 83028 | ESDU 83028, which is an Addendum to ESDU 83001, provides an approximate method for determining the uninstalled static thrust and the thrust lapse characteristics for a wide range of direct-drive,... |

Baffled shell-and-tube heat exchangers; flow distribution, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient on the shellside. -- 83038 | ESDU 83038 gives a simplified calculation procedure for estimating the flow rate of the shellside fluid through the various leak and by-pass paths of a shell-and-tube exchanger. The reduced flow... |

A summary of the concepts relating to random processes. -- 83041 | ESDU 83041 gives a basic insight into and understanding of the concepts and definitions required to study random processes. No previous knowledge of statistics or harmonic analysis is assumed of... |

Contact phenomena. II: stress fields and failure criteria in concentrated elastic contacts under combined normal and tangential loading. -- 84017 | ESDU 84017 provides a graphical method for predicting failure in the contact area of two elastic bodies subjected to combined normal and tangential loading. The method assumes that the ratio... |

An introduction to time-dependent aerodynamics of aircraft response, gusts and active controls. -- 84020 | ESDU 84020 explains the derivation and application of the indicial (step-response) functions (also called Wagner and Kussner functions) used to study aircraft response. The functions are introduced through the Fourier... |

Aerofoil maximum lift coefficient for Mach numbers up to 0.4. -- 84026 | ESDU 84026 provides a simple empirically derived method for estimating maximum lift coefficient. The method predicts the increment in lift coefficient by which the maximum exceeds the value at zero... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded axial groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. -- 84031 | ESDU 84031 gives a calculation method by which a bearing can be designed to meet a required performance specification, or the performance of an existing design can be analysed. Guidance... |

Contribution of wing dihedral to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of roll at subsonic speeds, (Y sub p) sub gamma, (N sub p) sub gamma and (L sub p) sub gamma. -- 85006 | ESDU 85006 provides a method that relates the values of the dihedral contributions to the derivatives to the contribution of planform to the rolling moment due to rate of roll,... |

Contact phenomena. III: calculation of individual stress components in concentrated elastic contacts under combined normal and tangential loading. -- 85007 | ESDU 85007 presents a step-by-step calculation procedure for the evaluation of the individual stress components associated with the contact region of two unlubricated elastic bodies subjected to normal and tangential... |

Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part II: single point data for strong winds (neutral atmosphere). -- 85020 | ESDU 85020 is one of a series giving comprehensive turbulence characteristics for neutral atmosphere conditions which includes strong winds. It provides turbulence intensity, Reynolds stresses, probability and spectral density, and... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded axial groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. Superlaminar operation. (To be used in conjunction with ESDU 84031.) -- 85028 | ESDU 85028 extends the scope of ESDU 84031 to the analysis of axial groove hydrodynamic journal bearings under conditions for which the flow in the lubricating film is not laminar. |

Calculation of ground performance in take-off and landing. -- 85029 | ESDU 85029 gives a guide to topics that are common to take- off, accelerate-stop and landing. No particular emphasis is given to the class of aircraft, powerplant, surface, or type... |

Crack resistance curves. -- 85031 | ESDU 85031 provides R-curves for several aluminium, steel and titanium aerospace sheet materials in SI and British (lbf, in) units on transparencies for overlaying on plots of stress intensity factor... |

Conversion of air-data system pressure errors into height and speed corrections. -- 85036 | ESDU 85036 presents as both equations and graphs approximate formulae for converting errors in pitot and static pressure into corrections to height, Mach number and indicated airspeed. The methods give... |

Boiling inside tubes: general aspects and saturated wet-wall heat transfer. -- 85041 | ESDU 85041 discusses the problems met in thermal rating a vaporiser in terms of the flow patterns in boiling flow, the conditions for nucleate boiling, considerations of burn-out and dry-out,... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded axial groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. Low viscosity process fluid lubrication. (To be used in conjunction with Items Nos. 84031 and 85028.) -- 86008 | ESDU 86008 discusses the advantages and explains the essential additional considerations in using a process fluid as a lubricant. Appropriate bearing materials are particularly important and tables of data allow... |

Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part III: variations in space and time for strong winds (neutral atmosphere). -- 86010 | ESDU 86010 is the third in a group providing comprehensive atmospheric turbulence characteristics, and deals with the relationship between values measured at two points in space of the three turbulence... |

Applying, measuring and maintaining pretension in steel bolts. -- 86014 | ESDU 86014 discusses factors affecting the tension in a bolt, and indicates the methods by which a desired tension may be obtained, with a comparison of their relative accuracy and... |

Boiling inside tubes: critical heat flux for upward flow in uniformly heated vertical tubes. -- 86032 | ESDU 86032 provides a method for determining when the heat flux exceeds a critical value at which the liquid will not wet the wall (the condition of dry-out). A study... |

An introduction to the Z-transform and its application to sampled-data systems. -- 86037 | ESDU 86037 introduces the representation of a continuous signal by a sequence of equally spaced pulses each of which provides the value of the continuous signal at the particular sampling... |

Conversion of stability derivatives for a general change of body axes. -- 86041 | ESDU 86041 gives equations relating quantities in one body axis system to those in another. The quantities are force, moment and velocity (linear and rotational) vectors, constants of inertia and... |

A method of determining the wave drag and its spanwise distribution on a finite wing in transonic flow. -- 87003 | ESDU 87003 derives a simple formula for the wave drag of an aerofoil that requires for its evaluation a knowledge only of quantities on the aerofoil surface. The initial method,... |

Calculation of excrescence drag magnification due to pressure gradients at high subsonic speeds. -- 87004 | ESDU 87004 gives methods for estimating the factor by which the drag due to an isolated excrescence on a flat plate (for which ESDU 74036, 75031, 76008, 79015 and 84035... |

An introduction to aircraft buffet and buffeting. -- 87012 | ESDU 87012 provides an introduction to buffeting, its sources, prediction and control. Types of flow separation occurring on aerofoils and wings are discussed and their effect on pressure distribution and... |

Computer program for the prediction of fluid transients in liquid-filled systems. -- 87027 | ESDU 87027 introduces a Fortran program, provided as an executable file, for a planar network modelled as an assembly of up to 100 straight lengths of pipe. Components that may... |

Calculation methods for along-wind loading. Part 2. Response of line-like structures to atmospheric turbulence. -- 87035 | ESDU 87035 provides a step-by-step calculation procedure for the loading, accelerations and deflections of line-like structures such as bridges, masts and towers, or structural elements such as beams or columns... |

Calibration of anemometric pressure systems for lag. -- 87038 | ESDU 87038 describes the ground calibration tests made to the actual pressure measuring system as installed in the aircraft in order that corrections to flight measured air data for acoustic... |

Boiling inside tubes: critical heat flux for flow in uniformly heated horizontal tubes. -- 88001 | ESDU 88001 provides an empirically derived procedure for predicting the ratio of the critical heat flux in a horizontal tube to that in upward flow in a vertical tube under... |

Computer program for the prediction of air-lift pump performance. -- 88014 | ESDU 88014 introduces a computer program that predicts the operating characteristics of air-lift pumps. Such pumps operate by injecting air near the bottom of a riser so creating a two-phase... |

Calculation methods for along-wind loading. Part 3. Response of buildings and plate-like structures to atmospheric turbulence. -- 88019 | ESDU 88019 provides a step-by-step calculation method for the loading, accelerations and deflections of buildings and plate-like structures. The loading is derived as the sum of a mean component together... |

Boundaries of linear characteristics of cambered and twisted wings at subcritical Mach numbers. -- 88030 | ESDU 88030 estimates the onset of non-linear aerodynamic characteristics by giving an empirical method for predicting the incidence and corresponding lift coefficient for either initial leading- or trailing-edge separation. The... |

Avoidance of buckling of some engineering elements (struts, plates and gussets). -- 88034 | ESDU 88034, after a general introduction to buckling, provides data on the buckling stress for overall buckling of a strut with various end conditions and making allowance for initial imperfections. |

Application of process integration to utilities, combined heat and power and heat pumps. -- 89001 | ESDU 89001 shows how the techniques of process integration introduced in ESDU 87030, where they were used to optimise heat exchanger networks, can be extended to design optimally the heat... |

A procedure for force-balancing planar linkages using counterweights. -- 89028 | ESDU 89028 gives a step-by-step procedure for force-balancing planar single degree of freedom linkages. Balance is achieved by the addition of counterweights so that the resulting centre of mass of... |

Boiling inside tubes: pressure drop in straight tubes with upward or horizontal flow. -- 89039 | ESDU 89039 provides a method for predicting pressure drop based on an empirical correction applied to the adiabatic pressure drop which is calculated in three components: the friction component following... |

Body effect on wing angle of attack and pitching moment at zero lift at low speeds. -- 89042 | ESDU 89042 gives simple empirical methods of predicting the change in zero-lift angle and in pitching moment at zero-lift due to adding a fuselage of approximately circular section to a... |

A comparison of techniques for balancing planar linkages. -- 89043 | ESDU 89043 gives guidance on selecting in given circumstances the most appropriate balancing technique to eliminate or reduce both the shaking force and the shaking moment on a planar linkage. |

Boundary walls, fences and hoardings: mean and peak wind loads and overturning moments. -- 89050 | ESDU 89050 gives graphical data for peak and area-averaged mean forces on panels in infinite walls, panels near the free end of a semi-infinite wall, panels near a right-angled corner,... |

Construction of inelastic stress-strain curves from minimal materials data (computer program). -- 89052 | ESDU 89052 introduces a computer program, ESDUpac A8952, for computing the inelastic stress-strain curve, tangent and secant moduli, and the inelastic Poisson's ratio of a metallic material from limited commonly... |

Boiling inside tubes: post dry-out heat transfer in vertical tubes. -- 90001 | ESDU 90001 gives methods for calculating the heat transfer coefficient in the post dry-out region (that is when the critical heat flux is exceeded and the liquid no longer wets... |

Airframe-induced upwash at subsonic speeds. -- 90020 | ESDU 90020 provides a simple theoretically-based method for predicting the upwash at any point in the flow field ahead of the wing. The method, based on the "Yaggy-Rogallo" method, combines... |

Airframe noise prediction -- 90023 | ESDU 90023 provides a computerised method for estimating airframe noise in one-third octave bands over a frequency range set by the user. The OASPL is also computed. The polar and... |

Condensation inside tubes: pressure drop in straight tubes with vertical downflow. -- 90024 | ESDU 90024 develops a prediction procedure for pressure drop in annular/dispersed flow. It does not apply at the bottom of a condenser, where there is slug flow or the condensate... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded central circumferential groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. -- 90027 | ESDU 90027 provides a method for the design and performance analysis of bearings that are steadily loaded or for which the load and/or speed vary slowly. A design procedure generates... |

An introduction to aircraft excrescence drag. -- 90029 | ESDU 90029 provides information to assist in the application of the group of ESDU data on the prediction of the drag due to such excrescences as grooves, ridges and steps,... |

Boiling inside tubes: saturated wet-wall heat transfer with mixtures. -- 91011 | ESDU 91011 provides an estimation method for boiling heat transfer of multi-component mixtures, based on the method in ESDU 85041 for a single-component flow. After a discussion of the unique... |

A method of estimating a flow breakdown boundary for aerofoils and swept wings in transonic flow. -- 91021 | ESDU 91021 gives a method of estimating the boundary beyond which as either lift coefficient or Mach number is increased the turbulent boundary layer on the upper surface separates from... |

Condensation inside tubes: pressure drop in straight horizontal tubes. -- 91023 | ESDU 91023 develops a prediction procedure for annular/dispersed flow based on that used for vertical downflow in ESDU 90024. It does not apply to bubble or slug flow but in... |

Condensation inside tubes: condensate film coefficient for vertical downflow. -- 91024 | ESDU 91024 presents a procedure for calculating the local (point) condensate film heat transfer coefficient at a prescribed vapour mass flux and the mean coefficient for the case when the... |

Analysis of cam roller followers -- 91026 | ESDU 91026 presents a method for estimating the lift of a user-specified commercial needle-bearing roller mounted on a translating follower or a swinging follower and driven by a disc cam. |

Contribution of fin and tailplane to sideforce and yawing moment derivatives due to sideslip at supersonic speeds at low angle of attack. -- 91031 | ESDU 91031 presents a method for estimating the derivatives based on apparent mass calculations that allow for the interference effects of body, wing and tailplane on the fin. The method... |

A background to the handling qualities of aircraft. -- 92006 | ESDU 92006 examines those factors that affect the ease and safety with which an aircraft may be flown. For consideration of aircraft handling, aircraft are divided by class or role... |

Contribution of tailplane-mounted twin fins to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to sideslip at subsonic speeds. -- 92007 | ESDU 92007 gives a semi-empirical method applying to fins of small sweep (up to 20 degrees) for small sideslip angles up to Mach 0.7. From an analysis of limited experimental... |

Blending profiles of disc cams with radial translating roller followers. Part 1: to reduce segment angle, reduce reference circle radius or increase follower lift. -- 92014 | ESDU 92014 gives methods for designing blended cam profiles meeting the criteria that the maximum pressure angle does not exceed a specified value and that profile undercutting is avoided. Each... |

Aerodynamic centre of wing-body combinations. -- 92024 | ESDU 92024 applies to a parallel-sided axisymmetric body with a truncated rear end and a straight-tapered mid-set wing in subsonic or supersonic flow at low angles of attack. The wing... |

Calculation methods for externally pressurised (hydrostatic) journal bearings with capillary restrictor control. -- 92026 | ESDU 92026 provides a procedure for the design and performance analysis of the bearings with five or more identical equally-spaced rectangular recesses (or pockets) fed by identical capillary restrictors from... |

Contribution of ventral fins to sideforce and yawing moment derivatives due to sideslip at low angle of attack. -- 92029 | ESDU 92029 applies at subsonic and supersonic speeds to configurations with a body- or fin-mounted tailplane and a main fin in the plane of symmetry for angles of attack and... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded fixed-inclined-pad thrust bearings. (Guide to use of computer program A9234.) -- 92034 | ESDU 92034 provides details of a computer program, ESDUpac A9234. It implements the calculation procedure of ESDU 82029. It allows performance analysis of an existing design, or the design of... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded, off-set pivot, tilting-pad thrust bearings. (Guide to use of computer program A9235.) -- 92035 | ESDU 92035 provides details of a computer program, ESDUpac A9235, which implements the calculation procedure of ESDU 83004. It allows performance analysis of an existing design, or the design of... |

Calculation methods for externally pressurised (hydrostatic) journal bearings with capillary restrictor control. (Guide to use of computer program A9237.) -- 92037 | ESDU 92037 provides details of a computer program, ESDUpac A9237, that implements the calculation method of ESDU 92026. It allows performance analysis of an existing design, or the design of... |

An introduction to the statistical analysis of engineering data. -- 92040 | ESDU 92040 is directed to making statistical methods of analysis accessible to engineering users. It summarises the basic statistical terms and principles involved and discusses techniques most commonly used. It... |

Analogue to digital transformation. -- 92044 | ESDU 92044 examines the replacement of an analogue controller element by an equivalent digital controller element while retaining for the new hybrid system performance characteristics that are acceptably similar to... |

Contact stress in disc cams with roller followers. -- 93001 | ESDU 93001 presents a method for calculating values of compressive stress in the contact region between a disc cam and a roller follower at regular intervals during one rotation of... |

Blending profiles of disc cams with radial translating roller followers. Part 2: to incorporate an intermediate precision point or a constant velocity component. -- 93002 | ESDU 93002 presents methods for designing blended cam profiles such that the resultant follower motion includes either a specified intermediate displacement precision point or a specified intermediate constant velocity component. |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded central circumferential groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. (Guide to use of computer program A9304.) -- 93004 | ESDU 93004 introduces a computer program that implements the calculation method of ESDU 90027. The program predicts the minimum lubricant film thickness (taking any misalignment into account), eccentricity ratio, the... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded axial groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. (Guide to use of computer program A9305.) -- 93005 | ESDU 93005 introduces a computer program that implements the calculation methods of ESDU 84031 and 85028 and so considers both laminar and turbulent flow in a bearing with one or... |

Calculation methods for steadily loaded axial groove hydrodynamic journal bearings. Low viscosity process fluid lubrication. (Guide to use of computer program A9306.) -- 93006 | ESDU 93006 introduces a computer program that implements the calculation methods of ESDU 84031, 85028 and 86008 for laminar or turbulent flow in a bearing with one or two grooves. |

Contribution of body-mounted fins and tailplanes to lateral derivatives due to sideslip at subsonic speeds for general body width to height ratio. -- 93007 | ESDU 93007 applies to single or twin fins on aircraft at angles of attack up to 5 degrees and angles of sideslip up to 4 degrees. It treats a wider... |

Computation of static pressure downstream of a normal shock for hypersonic flight (ambient temperature known). -- 93020 | ESDU 93020 is ancillary to and is for use in conjunction with ESDU 88025, which provides a definitive method for deriving primary air-data parameters in hypersonic flight with excellent precision,... |

Buckling of flat rectangular orthotropic plates. -- 94005 | ESDU 94005 introduces a Fortran program, ESDUpac A9405, that calculates the buckling load for the plate for uniform, in-plane uniaxial or biaxial direct loading with or without shear. The program... |

Contact stress in disc cams with domed or flat faced followers. -- 94011 | ESDU 94011 presents a method for calculating values of compressive contact stress in the contact region between a disc cam and a domed or flat-faced follower at regular intervals during... |

Application of multivariate optimisation techniques to determination of optimum flight trajectories. -- 94012 | ESDU 94012 explains in broad terms the method of optimisation used by such techniques and emphasises that numerical optimisation will not locate an absolute minimum but requires the user to... |

Computer program for estimation of leading-edge suction distribution for plane thin wings at subsonic speeds. -- 94038 | ESDU 94038 introduces a Fortran program, ESDUpac A9438, that calculates the total theoretical leading-edge suction and its normalised spanwise distribution for wings from the tabulated values for the distribution given... |

Condensation inside tubes: condensate film coefficient in horizontal tubes. -- 94041 | ESDU 94041 provides correlations in vapour shear-controlled annular and gravity-controlled stratified flows for the local heat transfer coefficient at a specified vapour mass flow fraction. A flow regime map defines... |

Computer program for estimation of spanwise loading of wings with camber and twist in subsonic attached flow. Lifting-surface theory. (With Appendix A: effect of plain flaps.) -- 95010 | ESDU 95010 introduces two Fortran computer programs, ESDUpacs A9510 and B9510, that use lifting-surface theory based on the Multhopp-Richardson solution. Both programs calculate the distributions of local lift and pitching... |

Computer programs for response of structures to vortex shedding. Structures of circular or polygonal cross section. Part 1. Microsoft Excel module. -- 96031 | ESDU 96031 provides guidance on the use of a module for Microsoft Excel for calculation of response of structures to vortex shedding. The basis of the calculation method is described... |

A qualitative introduction to static aeroelasticity: controllability, loads and stability. -- 96037 | ESDU 96037 introduces some of the fundamental concepts relating to the effects of structural flexibility for aeroplanes of classical configuration (aspect ratios greater than 4 and sweep angles less than... |

Aerofoil incidence for zero lift in subsonic two- dimensional flow. -- 98011 | ESDU 98011 gives a method for predicting the viscous zero-lift incidence of aerofoils. The method applies to aerofoils with simple or complex camber lines and accounts for the effect of... |

Aerodynamic principles of winglets. -- 98013 | ESDU 98013 describes how winglets function and the aerodynamic principles governing their design. At subsonic speeds the aerodynamic efficiency of a wing (without winglets) is ultimately constrained by its span. |

Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailing-edge single-slotted flaps at low speeds. -- 99004 | ESDU 99004 predicts for aerofoils the position of the centre of the incremental lift based on thin-aerofoil theory with empirical correction. This is combined with the predicted increment in aerofoil... |

Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailing-edge double-slotted and triple-slotted flaps at low speeds. -- 99014 | ESDU 99014 predicts for aerofoils the centre of lift position based on thin-aerofoil theory with empirical correction. This is combined with the predicted increment in aerofoil lift coefficient from ESDU... |

Approximate transport properties of high-temperature air in dissociation equilibrium. -- AERO 00.01.07 | ESDU AERO 00.01.07 gives graphs of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number and the product of density and dynamic viscosity, as functions of pressure and specific enthalpy, for air assumed... |

A simple model of a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect diatomic gas. Comparison with real gases. -- AERO 00.01.09 | ESDU AERO 00.01.09 gives theoretical expressions, obtained by consideration of the behaviour of a diatomic molecule, in terms of the characteristic vibrational temperature for the ratio of specific heat capacities,... |

Conditions behind normal shock waves in a perfect gas for various values of gamma. -- AERO 00.03.28 | ESDU AERO 00.03.28 gives equations for the downstream Mach number, and the ratios across the shock of static pressure, total pressure, density and temperature, all as functions of upstream Mach... |

Aerodynamic centre in two-dimensional flow. -- AERO A.08.01.05 | ESDU AERO A.08.01.05 gives a curve that allows the ratio of the chordwise position of the aerodynamic centre in incompressible flow (h0) to that in incompressible inviscid flow (h0T) to... |

Control hinge-moment coefficient derivative due to tab. -- AERO C.04.01.08 | ESDU Aero C.04.01.08 gives the rate of change of control hinge moment with deflection of a sealed tab in subsonic flow. A graph plots that quantity against the ratio of... |

Conversion factor for profile drag increment for part-span flaps. -- AERO F.02.01.07 | ESDU Aero F.02.01.07 gives curves that provide factors to correct the profile drag increment due to deflection of a full-span flap to give the increment for a part-span flap with... |

Approximate calculation of the pressure changes in two-dimensional supersonic flow. -- AERO S.00.03.14 | ESDU AERO S.00.03.14 gives a table of the first- and second-order Busemann coefficients (and their ratio) that appear in the equation for the pressure coefficient in terms of the deflection... |

Conditions for shock wave detachment and for subsonic flow behind nose shock waves on cones at zero incidence and on wedges. -- AERO S.00.03.16 | ESDU AERO S.00.03.16 provides graphs plotting against Mach number the value of the nose angle of a cone and of a two-dimensional wedge at which the nose shock is just... |

Conditions behind normal shock waves in air in dissociation equilibrium. -- AERO S.00.03.22 | ESDU AERO S.00.03.22 gives equations for the enthalpy and the static pressure in the equilibrium zone behind the shock, and the density ratio across the shock, as functions of the... |

Conditions behind oblique shock waves for air in dissociation equilibrium. -- AERO S.00.03.23 | ESDU AERO S.00.03.23 gives curves of shock angle plotted against flow deflection angle for various values of the density ratio across the shock. When the shock angle is known the... |

Critical Mach number for high speed aerofoil sections. -- AERO W.00.03.01 | ESDU Aero W.00.03.01 gives theoretically-derived curves of critical Mach number plotted against thickness/chord ratio for a range of lift coefficients from zero to 0.5, and for an elliptic cylinder at... |

Aerodynamic heating: temperatures at a perfectly insulated surface neglecting radiation. -- AERO W.S.00.03.18 | ESDU Aero W.S.00.03.18 provides a graph of the stagnation temperature in air taking into account the variation of the specific heat capacity at constant pressure of the air with temperature. |

Base pressure on aerofoil sections with a blunt trailing edge in supersonic flow. -- AERO W.S.02.03.07 | ESDU Aero W.S.02.03.07 gives methods for turbulent or laminar boundary layers at the trailing edge. In the former case curves are given for two empirically determined contributions to the base... |

CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling friction losses and flow characteristics in straight pipes. -- CFD-BPG 09010 | ESDU CFD-BPG 09010 provides the Best Practice Guidelines recommended by ESDU for the CFD modelling of friction losses and flow characteristics in circular straight pipes with smooth walls. These Guidelines... |

CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling pressure losses and flow characteristics in square- and knife-edged orifice plates -- CFD-BPG 11010 | ESDU CFD-BPG 11010 provides the Best Practice Guidelines recommended by ESDU for the CFD modelling of pressure loss, discharge coefficient and flow characteristics in square- and knife-edged orifice plates. These... |

Analysis of Geneva mechanisms: derivation of kinematic and kinetostatic equations. -- ME3 | ESDU ME3 treats the relationships used in the performance analysis of internal and external Geneva mechanisms driven by a crank rotating at constant or varying speed and transmitting power using... |

Approximate estimation of drag of windmilling propellers. -- PERF ED1/1 | ESDU Perf ED1/1 gives graphs of power and thrust coefficient for propellers with activity factors of 350 and zero-lift angle at 0.7 radius of 3.1 degrees; guidance is given on... |

Approximate estimation of braking thrust of propellers (piston engines). -- PERF ED1/2 | ESDU Perf ED1/2 gives curves of power and thrust coefficient as a function of total activity factor and blade angle at 0.7 radius. ESDU Perf ED1/1 provides information on the... |

Analytical method of performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-jets. Rate of climb. -- PERF RJ2/1 | ESDU Perf RJ2/1 gives two formulae for the incremental correction to standard atmosphere and aircraft conditions of flight measured data, one applying at constant pressure and one at constant temperature. |

Criteria of yielding and failure. -- STRUCT 02.00.00 | ESDU Struct 02.00.00 gives yielding and failure criteria applying to materials subjected to combined loadings which may be compared to the results obtained from uniaxial tension testing in determining failure... |

Average and edge stresses for long flat plates in compression for different edge conditions. -- STRUCT 02.01.02 | ESDU Struct 02.01.02 provides curves from which the stress in the long edges of the plate can be determined from a knowledge of its dimensions, Young's modulus of the material,... |

Average and edge stresses for thin flat aluminium alloy plates in compression. -- STRUCT 02.01.03 | ESDU Struct 02.01.03 gives a graph of the average stress (load divided by cross-sectional area) plotted against the edge stress in the direction of loading applicable to values of the... |

Buckling in compression of sheet between rivets. -- STRUCT 02.01.08 | ESDU Struct 02.01.08 provides a graph that allows the edge stress to be determined at which sheet in compression buckles between the rivets. The method relies on the equation given... |

Buckling stress coefficients for slightly curved plates with clamped edges. -- STRUCT 02.01.10 | ESDU Struct 02.01.10 provides a graph from which the buckling stress coefficient may be obtained for a slightly curved plate loaded along its axis with the edges clamped but subjected... |

Average and edge stresses for slightly curved plates with clamped edges in compression with initial irregularities. -- STRUCT 02.01.11 | ESDU Struct 02.01.11 provides graphs relating the average stresses to the stresses in the unloaded edges of a slightly curved plate loaded along its axis with the other edges clamped... |

Buckling stress coefficients for flat rectangular plates in compression. (Edges restrained against rotation - antisymmetric rotation.) -- STRUCT 02.01.22 | ESDU Struct 02.01.22 gives a graph plotting the buckling stress coefficient against plate length to width ratio for a plate loaded along its length under uniform compression, each curve relating... |

Average and edge stresses in long flat rectangular plates in compression under varying edge conditions. -- STRUCT 02.01.23 | ESDU Struct 02.01.23 gives two graphs plotting, for various values of elastic lateral restraint applied to the long edges of a plate loaded in uniform compression along its length, the... |

Buckling stress coefficients for flat parallelogram plates under uniform compression. (All edges fixed against rotation.) -- STRUCT 02.01.46 | ESDU Struct 02.01.46 gives a graph from which the buckling coefficient of the plate may be obtained. Four curves are plotted against the ratio of the plate length to its... |

Buckling stress coefficients for parallelogram shaped panels in continuous flat sheet under uniform compression. -- STRUCT 02.01.47 | ESDU Struct 02.01.47 gives a graph from which the buckling stress coefficient of the panel may be obtained. Five curves are plotted against the ratio of the panel length to... |

Buckling stress coefficients for flat plates tapered in plan, under compression. -- STRUCT 02.01.48 | ESDU Struct 02.01.48 gives graphs from which the buckling stress coefficient of a plate symmetrically tapered in plan may be obtained for all four cases of a pair of opposite... |

Buckling stress coefficients for flat rectangular plates tapered in thickness, under compression. -- STRUCT 02.01.49 | ESDU Struct 02.01.49 gives graphs from which the buckling stress coefficient of a plate tapered in thickness along its length may be obtained for all four cases of a pair... |

Buckling stress ratios for plates under uniform compression and shear. -- STRUCT 02.04.01 | ESDU Struct 02.04.01 applies to flat or curved rectangular plates and gives an empirical graph plotting a compressive stress ratio against a shear stress ratio. The former is the ratio... |

Average and edge stresses for flat plates under shear and compression. -- STRUCT 02.04.02 | ESDU Struct 02.04.02 applies to an elastic plate loaded longitudinally in uniaxial compression combined with shear and having simply-supported edges. The plate is assumed to have an aspect ratio of... |

Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailing-edge split flaps at low speeds. -- 98009 | For aerofoils, the method of ESDU 98009 predicts the centre of lift position based on thin-aerofoil theory with empirical correction to obtain agreement with extensive experimental data. This is combined... |

Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailing-edge plain flaps at low speeds. -- 98017 | For aerofoils, the method of ESDU 98017 predicts the centre of lift position based on thin-aerofoil theory with empirical correction to obtain agreement with extensive experimental data. This is combined... |

Buckling of thin-walled unstiffened circular cylinders under torsion and pressure. -- 84012 | Graphs enable the buckling stress to be predicted of the cylinders when subjected to torsion alone. All cylinder lengths are covered, from infinitely long, through cylinders whose buckling is affected... |

CFD studies for the validation of friction losses and flow characteristics in circular straight pipes with smooth walls -- TN 08008 | In this Technical Note, the ESDU CFD validation studies are presented for the prediction of friction losses and flow characteristics in straight circular pipes with smooth walls. Accurate prediction of... |

Computer program for the calculation of normal force and pitching moment of forebody-cylinder combinations at angles of attack up to 90 degrees and Mach numbers up to 5. -- 90034 | Item No. 90034 provides details of a computer program for the calculation of normal force and pitching moment of axisymmetric bodies, both with and without conical boat-tailing, for angles of... |

Constrained multivariate optimisation techniques for the design of aerofoil sections -- 99019 | Many varied methods exist for the derivation of optimum aerofoil shapes by the combined use of numerical optimisation techniques (optimisers) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Some are capable of optimisation... |

A method for estimating the pressure distribution between the crest and the trailing edge on the surface of an aerofoil section in a sonic stream. -- TD MEMO 6511
A method of estimating drag-rise Mach number for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. -- TD MEMO 6407 Bending moment in elliptical frames due to internal pressure. -- STRUCT 03.06.05 Buckling stress coefficients for curved plates in shear (axial length exceeding circumferential length, edges simply-supported). -- STRUCT 02.03.18 Buckling stress coefficients for curved plates in shear (circumferential length exceeding axial length, edges simply-supported). -- STRUCT 02.03.19 Collapse coefficients for unstiffened circular cylinders under uniform external pressure. -- STRUCT 04.09.01 Conversion factors -- CFS |
No abstract available for this Item. |

Aero-normalised stability derivatives: effect of wing on yawing moment due to yawing. -- 71017 | Presents data for the contribution of a straight-tapered swept wing to the aero-normalised yawing moment derivative due to yawing in low-speed flow at lift coefficients for which the flow remains... |

An introduction to Statistical Energy Analysis. -- 99009 | Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a method for estimating the approximate dynamic response of coupled, mechanical or acoustical, elements at high frequencies. The underlying theory behind SEA is fundamentally different... |

Computer program for estimation of lift curve to maximum lift for wing-fuselage combinations with high-lift devices at low speeds. -- 99031 | The construction of the input file for the program, which is based on twenty-two existing Data Items, is described. The program applies to aerofoils, wings and wing-fuselage combinations with or... |

Average gust frequencies. Subsonic transport aircraft. -- 69023 | The data presented have been obtained from accelerometer VG and VGH records mainly from subsonic transport aircraft in scheduled operation. Curves present the average distance flown by aircraft, with and... |

Buckling loads in shear of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and corrugated cores, all edges clamped.) -- 68032
Buckling loads in shear of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and orthotropic cores of zero flexural stiffness, all edges clamped.) -- 68030 Buckling loads in shear of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and orthotropic cores of zero flexural stiffness, all edges simply-supported.) -- 67024 |
The elastic buckling loads are presented graphically in terms of the overall dimensions of the panel and its flexural and through-the-thickness shear stiffnesses. The data are applicable to sandwich panels... |

Buckling loads under combined longitudinal and transverse direct stress of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and orthotropic cores of zero flexural stiffness, all edges clamped.) -- 68031
Buckling loads under combined longitudinal and transverse direct stress of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and orthotropic cores of zero flexural stiffness, all edges simply-supported.) -- 67025 |
The elastic buckling loads are presented graphically in terms of the overall dimensions of the panel and its flexural and through-the-thickness shear stiffnesses. The loadings covered are either uniaxial in-plane... |

Buckling loads in shear of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and corrugated cores, all edges simply-supported.) -- 67026
Buckling loads under combined longitudinal and transverse direct stress of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and corrugated cores, all edges clamped.) -- 68033 |
The elastic buckling loads are presented graphically in terms of the overall dimensions of the panel and its flexural and transverse through-the-thickness shear stiffnesses. The data are applicable to sandwich... |

Buckling loads under combined longitudinal and transverse direct stress of flat sandwich panels. (Isotropic face plates and corrugated cores, all edges simply-supported.) -- 67032 | The elastic buckling loads are presented graphically in terms of the overall dimensions of the panel and its flexural and transverse through-the-thickness shear stiffnesses. The loadings covered are either uniaxial... |

Aircraft noise prediction -- 09009 | The ESDU Aircraft Noise Series provides a range of methods for predicting aircraft noise levels. ESDU 09009 provides an overview of the extent to which currently-available prediction methods can meet... |

Aircraft performance program. Part 2: installing and running Programs APP02 and APP03. -- 00032
Aircraft performance program. Part 3: brief guide. Programs APP02, APP03. -- 00033 Aircraft performance program. Part 4: Brief form of input and output. Programs APP02 and APP03. -- 00034 Aircraft performance program. Part 5: detailed input and output. Program APP02. -- 00035 Aircraft performance program. Part 6: examples of application. Programs APP02 and APP03. -- 00036 Aircraft performance program. Part 7: error messages. Programs APP02 and APP03. -- 00037 Aircraft Performance Program. Part 1: Introduction to the computer programs for aircraft performance evaluation. -- 00031 Aircraft Performance Program. Part 9: Testing programs APP02 and APP03. -- 00039 |
The ESDU Aircraft Performance Program is a suite of programs to predict the performance of an aircraft design for which appropriate aerodynamic and powerplant data are available. The programs are... |

Aircraft performance program. Part 8: program description of APP02. -- 00038 | The ESDU Aircraft Performance Program is a suite of programs to predict the performance of an aircraft design for which appropriate aerodynamic and powerplant data are available.The programs are written... |

Aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part II: Unsteady flow and aero-acoustics. -- 04023 | The information given in ESDU 04023 concerns unsteady flow and the associated aero-acoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Following a general introduction concerning the ranges of cavity geometry over which sustained... |

Application of linear regression analysis to acoustic fatigue data. -- 10012 | The Item presents a method for the analysis of acoustic fatigue data where the life, or the number of cycles to failure, has been measured for different stresses (or strains)... |

Computer program for calculation of equivalent straight-tapered wing planform -- 10023 | The methods of many Data Items that predict the aerodynamics of wings and wing-body combinations assume a straight-tapered wing for the presentation of correlations in terms of the planform parameters,... |

Compendium of modal densities. Part 1: rods, beams and plates -- 11008 | The modal densities for rods, beams and plates are collected together to form a compendium. Sandwich panels with isotropic cores and shear flexibility, faceplate bending and rotary inertia, which have... |

Computer program for wind speeds and turbulence properties: flat or hilly sites in terrain with roughness changes. -- 01008 | The purpose of ESDU 01008 is to provide detailed information on the use of, and background to, the Excel Visual Basic module E0108. This module, which runs in Excel 97... |

A guide to the alleviation of the base drag of a two-dimensional flat plate with a blunt trailing edge -- 10017 | The subsonic flow of the turbulent boundary layers over the upper and lower surfaces of a flat plate with a blunt trailing edge separate at the base to form an... |

Combination of spectra in Common Data Files from ESDU Aircraft Noise Data Items -- 08018 | There is a standard file structure for recording noise spectra and other data which is used throughout the ESDU Aircraft Noise Series. Most Items employ this Common Data standard. There... |

CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling pressure loss and flow characteristics. Incompressible flow in sudden contractions. -- CFD-BPG 07008 | This CFD Guide provides Best Practice Guidelines recommended by ESDU for the modelling, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), of pressure and flow characteristics in circular pipes with sudden contractions in... |

CFD Benchmarks for predicting pressure loss and flow characteristics. Incompressible flow in sudden contractions. -- CFD-BMK 07009 | This CFD Guide provides reliable benchmark data for the validation of CFD predictions in circular pipes with sudden contractions in incompressible flow. Input geometrical and flow parameters for sharp-, round-,... |

CFD Benchmarks for predicting friction losses and flow characteristics in straight pipes. -- CFD-BMK 09011 | This CFD Guide provides reliable benchmark data for the validation of CFD predictions in straight pipes in incompressible flow. Input geometrical and flow parameters for circular straight pipes with smooth... |

Aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part IIIA: Alleviation of unsteady flow effects - Introduction -- 08011 | This Data Item is the first in the series of four Items (Parts IIIA to IIID) comprising Part III of the wider five-part series (Parts I to V) dealing with... |

CFD validation studies for pressure loss and flow characteristics in sudden contractions. -- TN 06023 | This Technical Note describes the CFD studies conducted by ESDU for the validation of the predictions of pressure loss and flow characteristics in sharp-, round- and chamfer-edged sudden contractions, in... |

CFD validation studies for incompressible flow through square-edged orifice plates. -- TN 10013 | This Technical Note discusses the studies conducted by ESDU for the CFD validation of the predictions for pressure loss, discharge coefficient and flow characteristics in square-edged orifice plates. These studies... |

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