GAF Datasheets for Roofing Materials

Roofing materials come in many forms. For example, sheet metal, asphalt and tiles are common materials depending on the climate there are best suited for.
Roofing Materials: Learn more

Product Name Notes
Three Tab Shingle -- Marquis WeatherMax® 3-Tab Shingles "The top-of-the-line in traditional "3-tab" shingles, Marquis® WeatherMax® is designed for the discriminating homeowner who demands outstanding performance, classic detailing, and a traditional appeal." For Homeowners...
Roof Deck Protection -- Deck-Armor™ (Best) Deck-Armor™ Premium Breathable Roof Deck Protection Protect Your home With Premium "Breathable" Roof Deck Protection Premium Roof Deck Protection should protect your home and “breathe” at the same time (amazingly,...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- Topcoat Sky-Lite Description TOPCOAT® Sky-Lite is a clear, solvent-based synthetic rubber sealer designed to protect and waterproof porous, deteriorated fiberglass reinforced skylight panels. It is offered in a water-based version when...
Ultra-Premium Designer Shingle -- Camelot® Lifetime Designer Shingles "Combining uncompromising performance with timeless beauty, Camelot® shingles may be the finest designer asphalt shingle ever made." For Homeowners Affordable Luxury... Camelot® is GAF’s top-of-the-line...
Roof Deck Protection -- Shingle-Mate® (Good) Shingle-Mate® Roof Deck Protection Avoid A Buckled, Bumpy-Looking Roof With Superior Roof Deck Protection Superior Quality Roof Deck Protection Can Protect And Beautify At The Same Time! Quality roof...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® FireShield® MB Description FireShield® MB Elastomeric Roofing Membrane is a water-based, 100% acrylic that cures to form a seamless rubber membrane. FireShield® MB, with its patent-pending technology will maintain, or...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® MOP FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® MOP FR membrane is a premium, heavy duty, fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient non-woven polyester mat that is...
Bitumen APP Membranes -- Ruberoid® Torch FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® TORCH FR membrane is a premium, fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, heavyweight, resilient non-woven polyester mat that is...
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Sienna™ "A classic design offering Old World elegance - at an incredibly affordable price."
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Grand Sequoia® "Great Value For A Rugged Wood Shake Look." "Extra-large design with over-sized tabs create a realistic wood shake look—at a fraction of the cost!" All Of GAF's Lifetime Designer Shingles...
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Camelot II® "Never before has the beauty of a luxury roof been priced so affordably!" Imagine getting the subtle beauty of a luxury designer shingle…but at an incredibly affordable price. Now, GAF’s...
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Slateline® "The Look Of Slate At A Fraction Of The Cost" "Bold shadow lines and tapered cut-outs create the appearance of depth and dimension" All Of GAF's Lifetime Designer Shingles Offer...
Timberline Lifetime Shingle -- Timberline HD® (formerly called Timberline® Prestique® 30) "Value And Performance In A Genuine Wood Shake Look" For Homeowners Great Value...Architecturally stylish but practically priced—with a lifetime ltd. warranty. Beautiful...
Specialty Roof System -- PlazaDeck Choosing a GAF PlazaDeck (i.e., walkable) Waterproofing System for your roof or balcony can: Add usable square footage to your property Increase resale value For a surprisingly modest investment, GAF...
Roof Deck Protection -- TigerPaw™ (Better) Help Protect Your Home From Damaging Moisture With Superior Roof Deck Protection Superior Quality Roof Deck Protection Can Protect And Beautify At The Same Time! Superior quality roof deck protection...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- UnderRoof HT™ Leak Barrier Now, Protect Your Metal, Shingle, Or Tile Roof1 With A Waterproof Leak Barrier Whether your installer uses a leak barrier to waterproof just the vulnerable areas of your roof...
Ridge-Cap Shingle -- TimberTex® A Distinctive and Protective Ridge Cap Shingle Will: Accentuate the natural beauty of your newly installed architectural shingle roof (or even add dimension and depth to a strip shingle roof)...
TPO Roofing - Fleece-Back -- EverGuard® Extreme™ 60 & 80
TPO Roofing - Smooth -- EverGuard® Extreme™ 50 & 70
Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) systems are typically mounted directly to a low slope roofing membrane. Temperatures are as high as 190˚F in close proximity to solar panels mounted directly to white...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- EnergyCote™ Coating Description EnergyCote™ is a brilliant white, water-based, low VOC, highly reflective, elastomeric coating, which cures to form a seamless rubber membrane. It has been specifically designed to treat seams,...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® FireShield® EPDM Description FireShield® EPDM Elastomeric Roofing Membrane is a water-based acrylic rubber liquid that cures to form a seamless rubber membrane. FireShield® EPDM with it’s patent-pending technology will maintain,...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® FireShield® SB Description FireShield® SB Elastomeric Roofing Membrane is a solvent-based, liquid thermoplastic rubber sealant that cures to form a seamless rubber membrane. FireShield® SB with it's patent-pending technology will...
Base Sheet -- GAFGLAS ®#75 Base Sheet Description GAFGLAS® #75 Base Sheet is a premium roofing base sheet constructed with a strong glass mat that is coated on both sides to assure a closed-sheet design to prevent...
Base Sheet -- GAFGLAS® #80 Ultima Base Sheet Description GAFGLAS® #80 Ultima™ Base Sheet is a high performance, asphalt coated, glass-reinforced roofing base sheet. Special Loctite™ closed-pore design prevents bleed-through while providing long-lasting leak protection in a variety...
Base Sheet -- GAFGLAS® STRATAVENT ®Eliminator Nailable™ Description GAFGLAS® STRATAVENT® Eliminator™ Nailable Base Sheet is a premium-grade roofing felt constructed around a strong glass fiber mat and high quality asphalt. The bottom of the sheet...
Base Sheet -- GAFGLAS® STRATAVENT ®Eliminator Perforated™ Description GAFGLAS® STRATAVENT® Eliminator™ Perforated Base Sheet is a premium-grade roofing felt constructed around a strong glass fiber mat and high quality asphalt. The bottom of the sheet...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Liberty™ SBS Base Sheet Description Liberty™ SBS Self-Adhering Base/Ply Sheet is a durable, modified bitumen membrane designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements. The product is designed for use as a waterproofing...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Liberty™ EZ Installation Kit Description Liberty™ EZ Installation kit is a convenient combination of everything you should need to complete small roofing projects using Liberty™ Self-Adhered Roofing membranes. The kit includes application...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Liberty™ MA Base Sheet Description Liberty™ MA Mechanically Attached Base Sheet is a durable, modified bitumen membrane designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements. The product is designed for use as...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Liberty™ SBS Cap Sheet Description Liberty™ SBS Self-Adhering Cap Sheet is a durable, modified bitumen membrane designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements. The product is designed for use as a...
Bitumen APP Membranes -- WorkHorse™ ROOFMatch ®APP Granular Membrane Description ROOFMatch™ APP Granular membranes are tough, resilient modified bitumen membranes manufactured to stringent specifications. The core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that is coated with weather-resistant,...
Base / Interply Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® 20 Smooth Membrane Description RUBEROID® 20 membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient non-woven glass mat that is coated with flexible,...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® SBS Dual FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® DUAL FR membrane is a premium, heavy duty, fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, premium fiberglass/polyester/ composite mat that is...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® 30 Membrane Description RUBEROID® 30 membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong resilient, non-woven glass mat that is coated with...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® 30 FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® 30FR membrane is a fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong resilient, non-woven glass mat that is coated with an...
Base / Interply Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® SBS Dual Smooth Membrane Description RUBEROID® DUAL SMOOTH membrane is a premium, heavy duty, modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, premium fiberglass/polyester/composite mat that is coated...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® Energycap SBS 30 FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® EnergyCap™ SBS 30 FR modified bitumen membrane is a fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane with a factory applied layer of TOPCOAT® EnergyCote™ elastomeric coating. EnergyCap...
Bitumen APP Membranes -- Ruberoid® EnergyCap™ Torch Granule FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® EnergyCap™ Torch Granule FR membrane is fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane with a factory applied layer of TOPCOAT® EnergyCote™ elastomeric coating. RUBEROID® EnergyCap™
Bitumen APP Membranes -- Ruberoid ®EnergyCap™ Torch Plus FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® EnergyCap™ Torch Plus FR membrane is a premium, fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane with a factory applied layer of TOPCOAT® EnergyCote™ elastomeric coating. RUBEROID®
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® Energycap™ MOP FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® EnergyCapTM MOP FR membrane is a premium, heavy duty, fire-retardant modified bitumen membrane with a factory applied layer of TOPCOAT® EnergyCoteTM elastomeric coating. Its core is...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® MOP 170 FR Membrane Description RUBEROID® MOP 170 FR membrane is a fire-retarding modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient non-woven polyester mat that is coated...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® MOP Granule Membrane Description RUBEROID® MOP GRANULE membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that is coated...
Base / Interply Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® MOP Plus Smooth Membrane Description RUBEROID® MOP PLUS SMOOTH membrane is a premium, heavy duty, modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient non- woven polyester mat...
Base / Interply Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ruberoid® MOP Smooth 1.5 Membrane Description RUBEROID® MOP SMOOTH 1.5 membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that is...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Ruberoid® SA Base/Ply Sheet Description RUBEROID® SA Base/Ply is a Self-Adhering Base/Ply Sheet. It is a durable, modified bitumen membrane designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements. The product is designed...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Ruberoid® SA Cap Sheet Description RUBEROID® SA Cap Sheet is a durable, self-adhering modified bitumen membrane designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements. The product is designed for use as a...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Ruberoid® SA FR Cap Sheet Description RUBEROID® SA FR Cap Sheet is a durable, self-adhering modified bitumen membrane designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements. The product is designed for use as...
Base / Interply Sheets (Heat-Weld) -- Ruberoid® SBS Heat-weld™ 25 Membrane Description RUBEROID® SBS HEAT-WELD™ 25 membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient non-woven glass mat that...
Base / Interply Sheets (Heat-Weld) -- Ruberoid® SBS Heat-weld™ Smooth Membrane Description RUBEROID® SBS HEAT-WELD™ SMOOTH membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that...
Bitumen APP Membranes -- Ruberoid®Torch Granule Membrane Description RUBEROID® TORCH GRANULE membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that is coated...
Bitumen APP Membranes -- Ruberoid®Torch Smooth Membrane Description RUBEROID® TORCH SMOOTH membrane is a tough, resilient modified bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. Its core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that is coated...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- StormSafe™ Anchor Sheet Description StormSafe™ Anchor Sheet for self-adhered membranes is a tough, non-breathable synthetic anchor sheet designed and manufactured to meet industry and code requirements for self-adhered low slope roofing applications.
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® Membrane Description TOPCOAT® Elastomeric Roofing Membrane is a water-based, spray-applied liquid, which cures to form a seamless 100% acrylic elastomeric membrane specially designed to seal the entire roof. TOPCOAT® is an...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® Membrane WOB Description TOPCOAT® W.O.B. (without biocide) is a water-based, brush, roll or spray-applied liquid which cures to form a seamless rubber membrane that covers the entire roof. It offers high tensile...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® EPDM Coating Description TOPCOAT® EPDM Coating is a water-based, reflective, highly flexible, liquid-applied membrane designed to protect and provide reflectivity to EPDM and other single ply roofs. EPDM Coating is listed...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® MB Plus Description TOPCOAT® MB Plus is a water-based, low VOC, acrylic, sprayable polymeric liquid, which cures to form a seamless rubber membrane. Covers and protects most roof surfaces including modified...
Liquid Membrane & Coating -- TOPCOAT® Surface Seal SB Description TOPCOAT® Surface Seal SB is a solvent-based, sprayable thermoplastic rubber sealant, which cures to form a seamless rubber membrane. It is highly reflective, provides extra protection, and is...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Ultraclad ®SBS Foil-faced Membrane Description ULTRACLAD® SBS Foil-Faced Membrane is a premium, fire-retarding bitumen membrane manufactured to stringent GAF specifications. ULTRACLAD® SBS Foil-Faced Membrane is manufactured using a high tensile woven fiberglass...
Self-Adhered Modified Bitumen -- Weather Watch® XT Leak Barrier Description Weather Watch® XT is an SBS modified self-adhering leak barrier that serves dual purpose as a low slope self-adhering base sheet for use with SBS heat-weld and APP...
Cap Sheets (Mop & Cold Applied) -- Workhorse™ Roofmatch™ SBS Granular Membrane Description WorkHorse™ ROOFMatch™ SBS Granular membranes are tough, resilient modified bitumen membranes manufactured to stringent specifications. The core is a strong, resilient, non-woven polyester mat that is coated...
High-Traction Synthetic Roofing Felt -- FeltBuster™ Description Quality roofing underlayment is critical for helping to prevent wind-driven rain from infiltrating under the roof’s shingles and potentially damaging the home’s structure and interior. Traditional asphalt felt underlayments...
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Monaco® Designed after classic premium tile roofing, Monaco™ Designer Lifetime Shingles combine beauty and sophistication without the hassles associated with tile. And for only pennies-a-day more than standard architectural shingles. They're...
Self-Adhered Single Ply Roofing -- EverGuard® Freedom™ TPO HW EverGuard® Freedom™ TPO HW is a self-adhered membrane with a heat weldable seam available in 45 mil and 60 mil thickness in 2 versatile colors: ENERGY STAR® qualified...
Self-Adhered Single Ply Roofing -- EverGuard® Freedom™ TPO with RapidSeam EverGuard® Freedom™ TPO with RapidSeam™ technology is a fully self-adhered membrane available in 2 versatile colors: ENERGY STAR® qualified white and earth tone tan. Freedom™ membranes combine EverGuard...
PVC Fleece Backed with Elvaloy® -- EverGuard® PVC XK 60 mil Fleece-Back Membrane
PVC Fleece Backed with Elvaloy® -- EverGuard® PVC XK 80 mil Fleece-Back Roofing Membrane
EverGuard® PVC XK Fleeceback Roofing Membrane is a high-performance thermoplastic membrane designed for mechanically attached or adhered roofing applications. EverGuard® PVC XK Roofing Membrane is produced with DuPont Elvaloy®1 KEE...
PVC Smooth with Elvaloy® -- EverGuard® PVC XK 50 mil Single-Ply PVC Roofing Membrane
PVC Smooth with Elvaloy® -- EverGuard® PVC XK 60 mil Single-Ply PVC Roofing Membrane
PVC Smooth with Elvaloy® -- EverGuard® PVC XK 80 mil Single-Ply PVC Roofing Membrane
EverGuard® PVC XK Roofing Membrane is a high-performance thermoplastic membrane designed for mechanically attached or adhered roofing applications. EverGuard® PVC XK Roofing Membrane is produced with DuPont Elvaloy®1 KEE and...
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Grand Sequoia® IR For a rugged wood-shake look, consider Grand Sequoia® IR Shingles. They are a fraction of the cost of traditional slate, wood shakes, or expensive metal roofing and they pass UL...
Timberline Lifetime Shingle -- Timberline Ultra HD™ For just pennies-a-day more, you can enjoy our best, thickest, most ultra-dimensional Timberline® shingle (and increase your resale value, too!) Timberline® Ultra HD™ shingles will cost you just...
TPO Roofing - Fleece-Back -- EverGuard® TPO 45 Fleece-Back Membrane GAF EverGuard® 45 mil Fleece-Back (FB) thermoplastic polyolefin single-ply membrane systems have been engineered to provide superior long-term performance and enhanced durability. Strong, flexible EverGuard® 45 mil FB...
TPO Roofing - Fleece-Back -- EverGuard® TPO 60 Fleece-Back Membrane GAF EverGuard® 60 mil Fleece-Back FB thermoplastic polyolefin single-ply membrane systems have been engineered to provide superior long-term performance and enhanced durability. Strong, flexible EverGuard® 60 mil FB...
TPO Roofing - Fleece-Back -- EverGuard® TPO 80 Fleece-Back Membrane GAF EverGuard® 80 mil Fleece-Back (FB) thermoplastic polyolefin single-ply membrane systems have been engineered to provide superior long-term performance and enhanced durability. Strong, flexible EverGuard® 80 mil membrane...
TPO Roofing - Smooth -- EverGuard® TPO 45 Membrane GAF EverGuard® TPO 45 mil thermoplastic polyolefin single-ply membrane systems have been engineered to provide premium performance at a very cost-effective price. Strong, flexible, durable EverGuard® TPO 45...
TPO Roofing - Smooth -- EverGuard® TPO 60 Membrane GAF EverGuard® TPO 60 mil thermoplastic polyolefin single-ply membrane systems have been engineered to provide superior long-term performance and enhanced durability. Strong, flexible EverGuard® TPO 60 mil membrane...
TPO Roofing - Smooth -- EverGuard® TPO 80 Membrane GAF EverGuard® TPO 80 mil thermoplastic polyolefin single-ply membrane systems have been engineered to provide superior long-term performance and enhanced durability. Strong, flexible EverGuard® TPO 80 mil membrane...
Non-Woven Fabric -- BUR Specialty Roofing GAF's random fibrous glass mat is impregnated and coated with specialty formulated asphalts to produce high quality specialty roofing membranes.
Specialty Roof System -- GardenScapes Garden Roofing Hassle-Free Garden Roofing Backed by North America’s largest, most trusted roofing manufacturer, the GardenScapes™ system is your best and safest choice for garden roofing. It features... Simple Design... Makes it...
Starter Strip Shingle -- WeatherBlocker™ Help Prevent Shingle Blow-Off And Eliminate Waste With An Eave/Rake Starter Strip Pre-Cut Eave/Rake Starter Strips Are One Of The Most Overlooked Parts Of A Roofing System! That’s because it’s...
Starter Strip Shingle -- Pro-Start™ Help Prevent Shingle Blow-Off And Eliminate Waste With An Eave/Rake Starter Strip Pre-Cut Eave/Rake Starter Strips Are One Of The Most Overlooked Parts Of A Roofing System! That’s because it’s...
Roof Deck Protection -- RoofPro™ Help Protect Your New Roof By Upgrading From Conventional Roofing Felts To Superior Roof Deck Protection Superior Roof Deck Protection provides an extra layer of moisture protection between your roofing...
Value Collection Designer Shingle -- Woodland® Maximizing your home’s “visual appeal” with the new Value Collection Lifetime Designer Shingles from GAF can be exciting, fun—and a smart investment. Woodland™ Lifetime Designer Shingles offer you the beauty...
Timberline Specialty Shingle -- Timberline® Cool Series Now get potential energy savings (and even tax credits) when you install GAF Timberline® Cool Series Shingles. Thanks to modern reflective technology, you can join the green revolution with...
Timberline Lifetime Shingle -- Timberline® American Harvest™ Now, you can improve its looks and even its resale value with Timberline® American Harvest™ Shingles from GAF. Designed to complement your home's exterior color scheme, the American Harvest™ Collection...
Timberline Specialty Shingle -- Timberline® ArmorShield II™ Potential Insurance Savings And Extra Protection — With The Beauty of Timberline® Shingles Compare These Benefits... Potential Insurance Savings...Passes UL 2218 Class 4 impact test, and may qualify for...
Timberline Lifetime Shingle -- Timberline® Natural Shadow™ Professional installers have long preferred the rugged, dependable performance that only a Timberline® roof can offer. That's why Timberline® shingles with Advanced Protection™ technology are the #1-selling shingles in...
Liberty™ Low-Slope Membrane Roofing Protect Your Property From Fire Dangers And Fumes By Installing A Self-Adhering Roofing System A Self-Adhering Roofing System will provide long-lasting protection for the low slope areas of your property...
Roof Deck Protection -- VersaShield® - UL Class A Roof Deck Protection Protect Your Roof From Moisture While Improving Its Fire Resistance With UL Class A Roof Deck Protection Quality Roof Deck Protection provides an extra layer of moisture protection between your...
Non-Woven Fabric -- Premium Roofing Roofing products integrated with GAF's Ultra-Mat® fiberglass substrate have superior strength and keep their shape during shipping, handling, and installation.
Three Tab Shingle -- Royal Sovereign® Royal Sovereign® shingles combine a simple, timeless beauty with GAF’s Advanced Protection™ technology... Some people think all strip shingles look pretty much alike. Not so! At GAF, we’ve gone to...
Ridge-Cap Shingle -- Seal-A-Ridge® The Perfect Finishing Touch For Your New Roof Should Be A Distinctive Ridge Cap Shingle A Protective Ridge Cap Shingle Will: Insure reliable protection at the highest-stress areas of your...
Ridge-Cap Shingle -- Ridglass® The Perfect Finishing Touch For Your New Roof Should Be A Protective and Distinctive Ridge Cap Shingle A Distinctive and Protective Premium Ridge Cap Shingle Will: Accentuate the natural beauty...
Ultra-Premium Designer Shingle -- Grand Canyon® The Ultimate Choice For A Rugged Wood Shake Look "The incredible depth and dimension of Grand Canyon™ shingles will astound even the most casual observer!" All Of GAF's Lifetime Designer...
Ridge-Cap Shingle -- ZRidge® Accentuate the natural beauty of your newly installed architectural shingle roof (or even add dimension and depth to a strip shingle roof) Insure reliable protection at the highest-stress areas of...