Automated tape laying (ATL) and automated fiber placement (AFP) equipment place composite tape on flat or shaped molds to fabricate multi-layered composite structures. The placement of tape by ATL/AFP machines is precisely controlled by computer to create layers with specific alternating carbon fiber orientations aligned with the expected loads for high mechanical strength. ATL machines lay relatively wide tape (typically 3 in to 12 in). AFP machines place a band comprised of several individually-driven narrow tapes (typically 1/8 in to 1/2 in width), enabling fabrication of more highly curved and complex part geometries compared to ATL. Composite tapes are typically comprised of fiber tows consisting of fiber reinforcement (e.g. carbon fiber) pre-impregnated (prepregged) with thermoset or thermoplastic resin.